or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft
of preparing food for consumption. Cooking
techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, from grilling
food over an open fire to using electric stoves, to baking
in various types of ovens, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions and trends.
Types of cooking
also depend on the skill levels and training of cooks. Cooking
is done both by people in their own dwellings and by professional cooks and chefs in restaurants and other food establishments. Cooking
can also occur through chemical reactions without the presence of heat, such as in ceviche, a traditional South American dish where fish is cooked
with the acids in lemon
or lime juice
or orange juice
Preparing food with heat or fire is an activity unique to humans. It may have started around 2 million years ago, though archaeological evidence for it reaches no more than 1 million years ago.The expansion of agriculture
, commerce, trade, and transportation between civilizations in different
regions offered cooks many new ingredients. New inventions and technologies, such as the invention of pottery for holding
and boiling water, expanded cooking
techniques. Some modern
cooks apply advanced scientific techniques to food preparation to further enhance the flavor of the dish served.
Phylogenetic analysis suggests that human
ancestors may have invented cooking
as far back as 1.8 million to 2.3 million years ago.